4d printing

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4 Ways Ceramic 3D Printing Technologies Are Paving the Way for the Future

Ceramic 3D printing has always been a popular application of additive manufacturing, yet still on the relative margins when compared to thermoplastics or metals. Naturally, metals and plastics are quite…

Advances in 3D Printing Tiny Things: PμSL for Multi-Scale, Multi-Material Structures

Focusing in on more complex, high-resolution digital fabrication, a team of scientists has come together to review projection micro stereolithography (PμSL) 3D printing technologies, releasing the details of their study…

Researchers 4D Print Chitosan Polymer Hydrogels

Authors Jeong Wook Seo, Su Ryon Shin, Yeon Joo Park, and Jojae Bae share the findings of their recent study in ‘Hydrogel Production Platform with Dynamic Movement Using Photo-Crosslinkable/Temperature Reversible…

Rice University Researchers Develop a New 4D Printing Method to Create Shapeshifting Materials

Researchers at Rice University‘s Brown School of Engineering created a new method to 3D print objects that can be manipulated to take on alternate forms when exposed to changes in…

4DTexture: Holistic Computational Design for 3D Surfaces

Researchers from both the US and China are taking digital fabrication and texture in materials to the next level, releasing the findings of their study in the recently published ‘4D…

UK Researchers: Single-Droplet Resolution for 3D Printed Functional Synthetic Tissues

Researchers from the UK have completed a unique study in 3D printed networks, releasing their findings in the recently published ‘Controlled packing and single-droplet resolution of 3D-printed functional synthetic tissues.’…

University of Auckland: Growth-Induced Bending of 3D Printed Samples Based on PET-RAFT Polymerization

4D printed objects are 3D printed objects made with smart materials that respond to environmental stimuli, like liquid and heat, or return to an original form after deformation. Researchers from…

International Research Yields New Concepts for Control-Based 4D Printing in Adaptive Systems

Researchers from Australia and the UK are venturing beyond the already complex level of 3D design, releasing the findings of their recent study in ‘Control-Based 4D Printing: Adaptive 4D-Printed Systems.’…

Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST): Multicolor 4D Printing of Shape-Memory Polymers

Researchers from Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) take 3D printing to the next level, releasing findings from their study in the recently published ‘Multicolor 4D printing of…

Zhejiang University Researchers 4D Print Modular Structures

Researchers from the College of Chemical and Biological Engineering at Zhejiang University have been exploring an even more complex realm of digital fabrication, releasing their findings in ‘Modular 4D Printing via…

4D Printed Structures to Impact Many Industries in the Future

Researchers from Libya are doing more than just delving past the limits of 3D printing and into 4D printing—they are investigating a full revolution in digital fabrication where structures can…

Nanoscale 4D Printing Technique Recreates Cell Surfaces: Polymer Brush Hypersurface Photolithography

While 3D printing is helping humanity in creating some of the most perplexing constructs we could ever imagine, researchers are now delving into the intricate technology of 4D printing to…

Customized FDM 4D Printing for Metastructures with Variable Bandgap Regions

International researchers are moving to the next level in digital fabrication, publishing their findings in ‘Shape-Adaptive Metastructures with Variable Bandgap Regions by 4D Printing.’ Focusing on how 4D metastructures can…

Bangladesh: Brac University Student Centers Thesis Around 3D, 4D & Even 5D Printing in Medicine

Fatema Tuz Zohra Moonmoon has submitted a thesis, ‘Possibilities of 3D & 4D printing technologies for personalized medicine’ to Brac University, exploring the ways digital fabrication may continue to impact…

FDM 4D Printing: Energy Absorbing Tunable Meta-Sandwiches Created

International researchers are taking advantage of the next level beyond 3D printing to produce novel materials and structures, as outlined in the recently published ‘Reversible energy absorbing meta-sandwiches by FDM…

Biomimetic 4D printed Autonomous Scale & Flap Structures: Pine Cones as Inspiration  

Researchers from Canada and Germany walk that fine line from the 3D into the 4D, sharing their findings in ‘4D pine scale: biomimetic 4D printed autonomous scale and flap structures…

Korea’s Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology: Exploring 3D & 4D Printing in Optics & Beyond

“Abundant new opportunities exist for exploration.” Korean researchers from the Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology are exploring more complex digital fabrication—and on two different levels, outlined in the…

Korea: 4D Printed Anisotropic Thermal Deformation

In the recently published ‘4D printing using anisotropic thermal deformation of 3D-printed thermoplastic parts,’ researchers Bona Goo, Chae-Hui Hong, Keun Park—all from Seoul National University of Science and Technology—are taking…

4D Printing in Singapore: Researchers Pair Compliant Mechanisms with Chitosan Biopolymers

Researchers continue to reach from the 3D realm to the next level, seeking to master the comprehensive fabrication of 4D structures. Now, a team of scientists from Singapore is exploring…

Robotics Manufacturing at the Next Level with 4D Printed Soft Robotics

Authors Ali Zolfagharian, Akif Kaynak, and Abbas Kouzani explore the growing science of soft robotics, outlining their findings in the recently published ‘Closed-loop 4D-printed soft robots.’ Emphasizing how fast this…

Thermoplastic Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials in 4D Printing

In ‘Thermoplastic Fiber Reinforced Composite Material Characterization and Precise Finite Element Analysis for 4D Printing,’ researchers are delving further into the next dimension. And while the 3D realm is barely…

Kyushu University: 4D Printing Magnetic Soft Actuators

Japanese researchers from Kyushu University have created a 4D printer for magnetic soft actuators, outlining their research in the recently published paper ‘Bio-Mimic Motion of 3D-Printed Gel Structures Dispersed with…

3D & 4D DLP Printing with Functionally Graded Materials

In ‘Grayscale digital light processing 3D printing for highly functionally graded materials,’ Chinese researchers make it clear that 3D printing has a long way to go for producing excellence in…

Penn State: 4D Printing with Wood Composites for Architectural Applications

In ‘Designing for Shape Change: A Case study on 3D Printing Composite Materials for Responsive Architectures,’ Elena Vazquez, Benay Gursoy, and Jose Duarte present details on customizing parts to optimize…