4D Printing

Origami Inspires 3D Printed Soft Robotics

Researchers from China have been inspired by origami structures and materials, leading them to the more complex development of robotics, as presented in the recently published “Origami spring-inspired metamaterials and…

Researchers 4D Print Chitosan Polymer Hydrogels

Authors Jeong Wook Seo, Su Ryon Shin, Yeon Joo Park, and Jojae Bae share the findings of their recent study in ‘Hydrogel Production Platform with Dynamic Movement Using Photo-Crosslinkable/Temperature Reversible…

Rice University Researchers Develop a New 4D Printing Method to Create Shapeshifting Materials

Researchers at Rice University‘s Brown School of Engineering created a new method to 3D print objects that can be manipulated to take on alternate forms when exposed to changes in…

4DTexture: Holistic Computational Design for 3D Surfaces

Researchers from both the US and China are taking digital fabrication and texture in materials to the next level, releasing the findings of their study in the recently published ‘4D…

University of Auckland: Growth-Induced Bending of 3D Printed Samples Based on PET-RAFT Polymerization

4D printed objects are 3D printed objects made with smart materials that respond to environmental stimuli, like liquid and heat, or return to an original form after deformation. Researchers from…

What Does the Future Hold for 3D & 4D Printing? Reviewing Current Processes & Ongoing Potential

Researchers come together to review both 3D and 4D printing, as well as exploring its ongoing potential in ‘Recent 3D and 4D intelligent printing technologies: a comparative review and future…

International Research Yields New Concepts for Control-Based 4D Printing in Adaptive Systems

Researchers from Australia and the UK are venturing beyond the already complex level of 3D design, releasing the findings of their recent study in ‘Control-Based 4D Printing: Adaptive 4D-Printed Systems.’…

Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST): Multicolor 4D Printing of Shape-Memory Polymers

Researchers from Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) take 3D printing to the next level, releasing findings from their study in the recently published ‘Multicolor 4D printing of…

Zhejiang University Researchers 4D Print Modular Structures

Researchers from the College of Chemical and Biological Engineering at Zhejiang University have been exploring an even more complex realm of digital fabrication, releasing their findings in ‘Modular 4D Printing via…

Nanoscale 4D Printing Technique Recreates Cell Surfaces: Polymer Brush Hypersurface Photolithography

While 3D printing is helping humanity in creating some of the most perplexing constructs we could ever imagine, researchers are now delving into the intricate technology of 4D printing to…

Customized FDM 4D Printing for Metastructures with Variable Bandgap Regions

International researchers are moving to the next level in digital fabrication, publishing their findings in ‘Shape-Adaptive Metastructures with Variable Bandgap Regions by 4D Printing.’ Focusing on how 4D metastructures can…

Upward Trends & Developments in 4D Printing with Gel Materials & Other Techniques

Researchers from Japan and the US are filling us in on some of the latest trends in digital fabrication and materials, highlighted in the recently published ‘Review – Recent Progresses…

Bangladesh: Brac University Student Centers Thesis Around 3D, 4D & Even 5D Printing in Medicine

Fatema Tuz Zohra Moonmoon has submitted a thesis, ‘Possibilities of 3D & 4D printing technologies for personalized medicine’ to Brac University, exploring the ways digital fabrication may continue to impact…

FDM 4D Printing: Energy Absorbing Tunable Meta-Sandwiches Created

International researchers are taking advantage of the next level beyond 3D printing to produce novel materials and structures, as outlined in the recently published ‘Reversible energy absorbing meta-sandwiches by FDM…

Korea’s Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology: Exploring 3D & 4D Printing in Optics & Beyond

“Abundant new opportunities exist for exploration.” Korean researchers from the Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology are exploring more complex digital fabrication—and on two different levels, outlined in the…

Korea: 4D Printed Anisotropic Thermal Deformation

In the recently published ‘4D printing using anisotropic thermal deformation of 3D-printed thermoplastic parts,’ researchers Bona Goo, Chae-Hui Hong, Keun Park—all from Seoul National University of Science and Technology—are taking…

4D Printing in Singapore: Researchers Pair Compliant Mechanisms with Chitosan Biopolymers

Researchers continue to reach from the 3D realm to the next level, seeking to master the comprehensive fabrication of 4D structures. Now, a team of scientists from Singapore is exploring…

Robotics Manufacturing at the Next Level with 4D Printed Soft Robotics

Authors Ali Zolfagharian, Akif Kaynak, and Abbas Kouzani explore the growing science of soft robotics, outlining their findings in the recently published ‘Closed-loop 4D-printed soft robots.’ Emphasizing how fast this…

4DHybrid Project: Modern AM to Support the Maintenance Repair Operations Value Chain

As 3D printing technology progresses at an accelerated speed, research and development efforts around the world continue to ascend into the realm of 4D. Now, the 4DHybrid Project, coordinated by…

Thermoplastic Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials in 4D Printing

In ‘Thermoplastic Fiber Reinforced Composite Material Characterization and Precise Finite Element Analysis for 4D Printing,’ researchers are delving further into the next dimension. And while the 3D realm is barely…

4D Printing in China: Shape Memory Polymers and Continuous Carbon Fiber

Researchers have been looking further into the benefits of shape memory polymers (SMPs) with the addition of raw materials in the form of continuous carbon fiber (CCF). Authors Xinxin Shen,…

Desktop FDM 3D Printed Shape Memory Polymers Create QR Codes

In the recently published ‘Additive Manufacturing of Information Carriers Based on Shape Memory Polyester Urethane,’ Dilip Chalissery, Thorsten Pretsch, Sarah Staub, and Heiko Andrä explored more in the 4D printing…

4D Printed Shape Memory Polymers Given Better Performance & Recyclability

Authors Ang Li, Adithya Challapalli, and Guoqiang Li explore a trend that continues to grow: 4D printing. Their findings are explained in the recently published “4D Printing of Recyclable Lightweight…

Poietis: Bioprinting With Their Innovative Laser-Assisted Technology

In 2014, French startup Poietis developed a unique technology for the bioprinting of living tissue. Unlike conventional approaches to tissue engineering or extrusion bioprinting, their promising 4D laser-assisted system allows cells…