Chinese researchers are working to improve drug delivery systems for bone repair, detailing their findings in the recently released ‘A novel vehicle-like drug delivery 3D printing scaffold and its applications for a rat femoral bone repairing in vitro and in vivo.’
Bone regeneration continues to be an area of challenge for researchers and doctors as they attempt to treat patients and improve their quality of life overall, performing a wide range of studies regarding materials, properties, and methods. Biomaterials are in great demand, and the authors point out that this demand increases as issues like traffic injuries rise, along with natural disasters and other catastrophes delivering patients in need to hospitals.
With the development of synthetic scaffolds being critical to further progress in bone regeneration, the researchers realize the following properties must play a role:
- Pore architecture
- Mechanical strength
- Controllable drug-delivery ability
Porous 3D printed scaffolds are of great interest to researchers, with the authors noting that other studies have centered around bioactive ceramics and bioactive glass of numerous kinds, offering the potential to bond with bone tissue via bioactive materials like hydroxylapatite (HA) or beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP).
Bioglass in particular offers better bioactivity and also releases silicon and calcium ions for better bone regeneration. And while it may have potential for bone tissue grafting, it still lacks the necessary versatility required for drug delivery systems:
“Herein, applying a mesoporous bioactive glass [MBG] coating onto the surface is a viable option for the drug delivering capacity of bioactive glass scaffolds,” stated the researchers. “With mesopores on the surface, DNA, cytokines and some drugs can be loaded onto the scaffold, meeting the requirements of disease treatment or further enhanced bone regeneration.”
This study centered around integrating MBG with bioactive glass scaffolds, adding dexamethasone (DEX) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), imbuing the structures with antibacterial and osteogenic properties. The scaffolds were evaluated for suitable drug delivery, cultured with hBMSCs in vitro and a rat femoral defect model in vivo. After immersion in simulated body fluids (SBF) and staining with ninhydrin, drug release was assessed, testing values at 241 nm for DEX, 260 nm for DNA and 567 nm for BMP-2.
The study reflected positive results, with MBG proving the capacity to both load and control drug release. BMP-2 exhibited the most rapid rate of release, followed by DNA, and then DEX.
“The main group of MBG was silicon oxide group, thus when immersed in a water solution the surface of MBG will exhibit a positive charge which will more easily absorb negative materials such as –OH groups, DEX and DNA,” stated the authors. “So, this may explain the phenomenon that BMP-2 release was better than that of DNA and DEX, in the order, BMP-2 > DNA > DEX.”
“We have investigated the response to the functional scaffolds of hBMSCs in vitro and the osteogenic capacity in rat femoral defects in vivo,” concluded the research team. “Results showed that the coating of MBG on 1393 scaffolds were a viable way to enhance the proliferation and ALP activity of hBMSCs and upregulate osteogenesis-related genes expression. The prepared BMP-2 loaded 1393@MBG scaffolds significantly improved bone regeneration in the osseous defects at 12 weeks post-implantation. These results suggested that the novel drug delivery 1393@MBG scaffolds could be a promising candidate for the use in bone tissue repair and relative disease treatment.”
What do you think of this news? Let us know your thoughts! Join the discussion of this and other 3D printing topics at 3DPrintBoard.com.[Source / Images: ‘A novel vehicle-like drug delivery 3D printing scaffold and its applications for a rat femoral bone repairing in vitro and in vivo’]
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