Researchers from Romania have recently delved further into materials associated with 3D printing, outlining their findings in ‘Polysaccharide-Based 3D Printing Inks Supplemented with Additives.’ In this study, they combined a variety of different polysaccharides to improve 3D printing inks.
“A wide range of materials have shown potential in 3D printing but modeling these materials into self-supporting items with tunable mechanical properties, degradation, and suitable rheological response is still an issue,” explain the authors, as they introduce us to the process of creating new inks, beginning with refining wettability.
Wetting agents—or humectants—also reduce the contact angle between bioink and the printer nozzle, as well as decreasing the chances for drying or crusting.
Typical humectants include:
- Polyethylene glycol (PEG)
- Glycerol (Gly)
In this study, the researchers created a ‘promising ink formulation’ based on CMC/Alg and CN/Alg, using wetting agents derived from both small and low-molecular weight polymers.
“Printing inks were formulated by using two precursor mixtures, CMC:Alg and CN:Alg in 1:1 mass ratio. For the first mentioned formulations, a solution of 4% CMC was prepared in distilled water and the corresponding amount of Alg was added under gentle stirring,” explained the researchers. “The latter formulations were obtained by directly dissolving Alg within CN suspension.”
Inks were printed using the 3D Discovery bioprinter from RegenHU. 3D printing experiments were performed, along with bioprinting of hydrogel scaffolds. BioCADTM software was used to create the G-code for the 3D constructs used in the study.
While Alg is not the best option for 3D direct writing on its own, CMC and CN ‘enhanced’ viscosity, better cross-linking occurred, and the -OH groups present offered a positive effect over solubility, and both rheological and mechanical behavior.
“Both cellulose types used herein, CMC and CN, differ greatly with respect to chemical and morphological features and yet both present favorable printing behavior,” stated the researchers.
Overall, rheological evaluation by the researchers stated that CMS compositions possessed low viscosity, flowing immediately upon stress. High-viscosity drops required ‘adequate external forces’ to engage the printing process.
“Loading an additional compound (such as PEG and glycerol) suggested the improvement of the wetting properties leading to slightly lower filament diameters relative to the corresponding reference composition,” stated the researchers.
“Considering the printing performance with respect to the predesigned architecture it can be concluded that a successful 3D printing was achieved using glycerol in the ink composition. Therefore, the fabrication of 3D scaffolds using a cellulosic material combined with alginate and a suitable additive provide accurate geometries but also guide the applications of the obtained hybrid hydrogels in the biomedical field.”
Researchers around the world are creating bioinks and hydrogels in labs, using materials meant to encourage tissue engineering of the liver, corneas, and more. What do you think of this news? Let us know your thoughts! Join the discussion of this and other 3D printing topics at 3DPrintBoard.com.[Source / Images: ‘Polysaccharide-Based 3D Printing Inks Supplemented with Additives’]
You May Also Like
3D Printing Foam Concrete: Investigating Production Techniques
In the recently published ‘Investigations on the foam concrete production techniques suitable for 3D printing with foam concrete,’ authors V. Markin, G. Sahmenko, V.N. Nerella, M. Nather, and V. Mechtcherine...
TU Dresden: CONPrint3D for Monolithic 3D Printing in Construction
Researchers from the Technische Universität Dresden have been exploring challenges within the construction industry. In their recently published paper, ‘Large-scale digital concrete construction – CONPrint3D concept for on-site, monolithic 3D...
Truth in 3D Printed Construction? “Nobody 3D Printed an Entire Building”
At 3DPrint.com, we’ve always been very skeptical about the goings-on in 3D printed construction. A lot of houses have been 3D printed in 24 hours, each time while conveniently forgetting...
Researchers Assess the Use of 3D Printing Geo-Polymer Concrete
In the recently published ‘Life Cycle Assessment of 3D Printing Geo-polymer Concrete: An Ex-ante Study,’ authors Yue Yao, Mingming Hu, Francesco Di Maio, and Stefano Cucurachi examine the development of...
View our broad assortment of in house and third party products.