Allison Murray, who built the custom inkjet printer and is a PhD candidate in Mechanical Engineering, said, “Energetic materials is a fairly understood field, and so is additive manufacturing. What’s unique about this project is the intersection of those two fields, and being able to safely deposit energetic materials with this level of precision.”
As our devices continue to get smaller, the critical need for energetic materials on the micro-level grows, and with it the need to keep the process safe. This is why research like the kind taking place at Purdue, which was funded in part by a grant from the DOD’s Defense Threat Reduction Agency, is increasingly important.
“Our solution is to combine two components as we’re printing them. We can have a fuel and an oxidizer in two separate suspensions, which are largely inert,” explained principal project investigator and Mechanical Engineering Professor Jeff Rhoads. “Then with this custom inkjet printer, we can deposit the two in a specific overlapping pattern, combining them on a substrate to form nanothermite.”
Inkjet 3D printing technology, also referred to as binder jetting, is very versatile, and can be used to deposit a wide variety of materials, such as antibodies, ceramics, and metal. One of the difficulties Purdue faced was designing a machine that could work with very small amounts.
“We’re talking about picoliters of material. It was a challenge to get the right droplet volume and the right pattern,” Murray said.
The team also had to make sure the custom inkjet 3D printer would be able to deposit the tiny droplets accurately, and achieved this by using the machine to hold the nozzle still, while a stage below it moves to form the required shape.
Murray said, “The stage can move with a 0.1 micron precision, which is basically a thousandth the width of a human hair.”
The researchers published a paper on the results on their project, titled “Two-component additive manufacturing of nanothermite structures via reactive inkjet printing,” in the Journal of Applied Physics; co-authors include Murray, Tugba Isik, Volkan Ortalan, I. Emre Gunduz, Steven F. Son, George T.-C. Chiu, and Rhoads.
The abstract reads, “With an eye towards improving the safety of the deposition of energetic materials while broadening the scope of materials compatible with inkjet printing, this work demonstrates the use of combinatorial inkjet printing for the deposition of energetic materials. Two largely inert colloidal suspensions of nanoaluminum and nanocopper (II) oxide in dimethylformamide with polyvinylpyrrolidone were sequentially deposited on a substrate using piezoelectric inkjet printing. The materials were deposited in such a way that the aluminum and copper (II) oxide droplets were adjacent, and overlapping, to allow for in situ mixing of the components. The alternating deposition was repeated to create a sample with multiple layers of energetic materials. Energetic performance was subsequently tested on samples printed with 3, 5, and 7 layers of materials using a spark igniter. This ignition event was observed with a high speed camera and compared to representative samples printed with pre-mixed nanothermite. High speed thermal imaging supported a conclusion that the maximum reaction temperature of comparable samples printed with the dual nozzle technique was nominally 200 K less than the samples printed with a single nozzle. Scanning transmission electron microscopy images confirmed a claim that the material constituents were comparably mixed with the single and dual nozzle techniques. This work proves the feasibility of reactive inkjet printing as a means for depositing energetic materials from two largely inert suspensions. In doing so, it opens the doors for safer material handling and the development of a wide array of energetic materials that were previously deemed incompatible with inkjet printing.”
A mixture of finely powdered aluminum and iron oxide, known as thermite, is used often in incendiary bombs, because it can produce very high temperatures upon combustion. By combining nanoaluminum oxide and nanocopper oxide with the water-soluble polymer PVP, the researchers were able to use Murray’s custom 3D printer to deposit nanothermite, which reacts with as much speed and power as traditionally applied thermites do.
Murray said, “It burns at 2,500 Kelvin [over 4,000 degrees Fahrenheit]. It generates a lot of thrust, a lot of heat, and makes a nice loud shockwave!”
Many times, it takes people from different disciplines and departments coming together for a single purpose to make a project successful. Ten researchers and four faculty members from different Mechanical Engineering disciplines contributed to the 3D inkjet printing research efforts, including Rhoads, who studies micro-electromechanical systems, inkjet printing expert Chiu, and Gunduz and Son, who both study energetic materials at Purdue’s Zucrow Labs, the largest university propulsion laboratory in the US.
“It’s a defining feature of Purdue that professors from such different backgrounds can work together on a project like this. We can combine all of our experiences to collaborate on technologies that weren’t previously realizable,” said Rhoads.
Discuss this and other 3D printing topics at 3DPrintBoard.com or share your thoughts in the Facebook comments below.[Source/Images: Purdue University]
You May Also Like
3D Systems Finalizes Sale of On-Demand Business, Will Operate as Quickparts
Pioneering additive manufacturing solutions provider 3D Systems finalized the $82 million deal for the sale of its on-demand 3D printing and custom manufacturing business. The rebranded company will operate as...
3D Printing Webinar and Event Roundup: September 19, 2021
We’ve got another busy week of webinars and events to tell you about! Topics in this week’s roundup run the gamut from 3D digital textures and FDM 3D printing potential...
3D Printing News Briefs, September 18, 2021: Business, Materials, & More
We’re filling up the front of today’s 3D Printing News Briefs with plenty of business, as one company celebrates an anniversary and two others welcome new executives to their ranks....
3D Printing Service Hubs Appoints New CEO, Alex Cappy
Changes are taking place at Hubs since it was acquired by manufacturing service provider Protolabs (Nasdaq: PRLB). Not only has the subsidiary removed the “3D” from its name, but it...
View our broad assortment of in house and third party products.